Welcome to Avebury Decoded: A 2021 survey, starting with Avebury’s Cove.
A picture of Avebury's main cove is shown above with a couple of stones that remain of its Northern Circle - one stone at the extreme left and the other at the extreme right.
The Cove once consisted of three large stones, or megaliths, arranged in a ‘U’ shape, like an open-sided box.
Covestone 2, seen in the middle of the picture, is often referred to as the 'Backstone,' but whether the Backstone was regarded as female by Avebury’s designers is doubtful. Either way, this stone is thought by archaeologists to have been planted upright around five thousand years ago and is the earliest and largest stone on the site.
Covestone 3 had fallen or was pulled down in 1716 and smashed into pieces before being whisked away for other purposes by Avebury’s villagers in 1720. So said Doctor William Stukeley, who described the stone as similar in size and appearance to Stone 1.
Opinions have varied on the Cove’s astronomical alignment. Some have claimed that it opens out towards the summer solstice of the sun. Others say it aims at the Standstill of the Moon. Such confusing opinions prompted several visits to the Cove to make more sense of it.
2. My first survey, published in “Stonehenge Secrets 2007," showed that its two remaining stones are precisely 90 degrees apart. The above photograph shows my 90-degree triangle of string, which I placed against the inner faces of Covestones 1 and 2 to prove it.
Unfortunately, I failed to get a photograph of the summer solstice sunrise because of atrocious weather.
3. Summer solstice at Avebury's Main Cove 2009.
White tapes were placed against the sides of Covestone 1 and parallel to the Cove’s axis. I also put a few menus from the Red Lion pub in line with this stone, not that they turned out to be much help!
But with tapes and menus placed and a camera at the ready, the Druid and I waited patiently for the sun to rise.
I got the photograph I wanted and put it on the front cover of a leaflet, which I produced and presented to the six top libraries in 2010, as the law requires - “The Real Avebury” ISBN 978-0-95533012-6-1. This photograph proves that the Cove aims about five degrees further north than the solstice. And, since the Major Standstill of the Moon is about nine degrees further north than the sun --the Cove is obviously aimed midway between the two.
Also of note is that the Druid conveniently marks the Major Standstill to show where the moon will rise in late 2024 if given clear skies. Let us hope someone captures a valuable picture of it!
4. This Photo was taken shortly after the actual solstice. This and the following picture prove that Avebury folk were not so interested in the exact point of the solstice as to what takes place a short while later.
This also has profound implications for other monuments, especially Stonehenge with its 50-degree axis, which is 1.5 degrees clockwise from the actual Neolithic and Bronze Age solstice.
5. The inner face of Covestone 2 -- The 'Backstone' as seen shortly after sunrise.
I had my solstice photograph and was about to leave when the druid called me over. “You are missing the best bit,” he cried. “Come over here and look at this.”
“What am I looking for?” I inquired.
“Never mind that -- you just keep clicking away at that camera.
And so, I did.
Early folks had not altered this stone by flattening and polishing it, but it hardly matters because five minutes after sunrise, when the sun escapes the earth's atmosphere, it gives off a beautiful rosy-red glow that no one should miss. Imagine what it would look like if cleaned free of lichen to expose the myriad of quartz crystals in its structure! Neolithic folks regarded this stone as a mirror that joined the sun and moon in "Astronomical Intercourse."
Several excavations around the bases of the Cove’s two remaining sarsens have been performed over the years. But the deepest was made in 2003, when, in a rescue attempt to prevent the stones from collapsing, archaeologists found ripe-husk-free barley seed against the base of the Backstone's outer face.
Neolithic folks had placed these seeds believing they possessed the very essence of life, and depositing them at the base of the Backstone displays a wish for something to grow. And that, presumably, was the Stone!
6. If ever a stone would benefit from a good scrubbing, this one would!
Few things archaeological can be proved beyond doubt. The alignment of Avebury's Cove is one of the exceptions. That is why I made another visit on the 20th of September 2021, with a crude Tee-square and affixed compass, to reaffirm the alignment I had found in 2009. It did. The compass showed the azimuth of the Backstone to be 48 degrees and midway between the sun's and moon's northernmost risings.
7. Also, the Tee-square proved the inner face of the Backstone to have a slight outwards bow, so for this photo, it was placed in the middle of the stone to give an average result.
We should expect the moon, in late 2024, to rise out of the notch in the horizon seen between the tallest tree and one of the remaining stones of the Northern Circle. This bulbous stone is female gender, as no doubt was the whole Northern Circle and every stone in it.
Furthermore, while describing stone rings as circles is convenient, Avebury’s Northern Circle was not circular but egg-shaped. That egg points west towards the equinox and to where the setting sun and moon slide down the side of the beautiful Cherhill Hill.
8. Archaeologists ground plan of Avebury's Cove. REF: Archaeological excavations at the Cove, 2003.
Serving to confuse more than to enlighten, this plan solves nothing. The stones are too far apart, the five-meter scale is hopelessly inaccurate, and the north arrow is 30 degrees out. And all for the benefit of deceiving the public. But don't blame the young archaeologists who produced it and have mortgages to pay; blame the whole sorry mess that is archaeology today.
“Archaeology in Britain is a shambles from top to bottom.” The late Professor Mick Aston of the Time Team.
So here we have more archaeological Red Herrings designed to put honest researchers off. And it doesn't bode well when trying to resolve Avebury's second cove to be found in Longstone's field near the village of Beckhampton.
The Longstone's Cove, or what is left of it, lies alongside the prehistoric Beckhampton Avenue of stone that once entered the Avebury Henge via its western causeway.
Avebury's Henge has long been known to be an internal device... 'I observed further that as these stones generally have a rough and a smoother side, they took care to place the most sightly side of the stone inward, towards the included area.' Avebury, a temple to the British Druids. Stukeley W, 1727.
Professor Atkinson said the same thing about Stonehenge...'The main concern of the builders was to produce a presentable finish on those surfaces which would be seen from the interior of the site - the exception being the great trilithon.' Stonehenge, page 121. Atkinson R, 1956.
A recent archaeological entry in Wikipedia concurs.
SO, AVEBURY AND STONEHENGE WERE INTERNAL DEVICES.
9. These triangles are proportional to 3:4:5 - The most basic of Pythagorean triangles.
Having established that the Cove in the middle of Avebury's Northern egg is rectangular, we next wanted to know the distance between Covestone 1 and the extant Covestone 3 - and without resorting to an archaeological excavation to determine the position of the hole in which Covestone 3 once stood. Fortunately, we only had to estimate this distance to the nearest Megalithic Yard. (32.664 imperial inches, 0.83 meters)
The Tee-square was sat on the grass and once more up against the inner face of the Backstone. And with the help of a friendly day-tripper from Dudley, we positioned the Tee-square, by common consent, to be in the middle of the stone. A measurement was then taken from the inner face of Covestone 1 to the Tee-square of sixteen feet six inches. This figure was doubled to give a distance between Covestones 1 and 3 of thirty-three feet, which converts to 12 Megalithic Yards.
Next, we estimated the distance from the inner face of the Backstone to the centre of Covestone 1. This was four megalithic yards -- which, when doubled -- gave eight in all.
These rough measurements show that Avebury's Cove is set on an eight by twelve megalithic-yard rectangle. So...
Avebury's eight-by-twelve Megalithic-Yard Cove has...
* Sixty-four half-size Pythagorean triangles, measuring 1.5 by 2.0 by 2.5 Megalithic Yards.
* Sixteen triangles measuring 3, 4, and 5 Megalithic Yards.
* Four triangles that measure 6, 8, and 10 Megalithic Yards.
So, the unequivocal Stone Age aim was for the Cove to grow exponentially -- Just like a child.
Avebury’s Cove is akin to baking a cake. Apart from numerics and three-sided triangles, which are known to represent the family, other Ingredients are --- Barley and Wheat seeds, which hold life dormant until fertilised by the sun and rain, semen, infant burials, and other unknown stuff.
Geometry with "corners." The geometry of Avebury's outer circuit of stones...
10. Avebury's Cove is shown above correctly placed in the middle of Avebury's so-called 'Northern Circle' - an egg. William Stukeley called it a "Lunar Temple."
The Northern Circle is shown here as a true circle prescribed by being placed against four known stones and the Southern Circle against its eight. However, we have plenty of information to show that these are not proper circles but ovals -- Specifically, eggs.
Nevertheless, it is better at this stage to leave the problem of these eggs behind for a while so we can concentrate on Avebury’s outer circuit.
Much of the following is thanks to a survey by Professor Alexander Thom et al. Thom's survey showed that the outer circuit was based on at least one 3:4:5 triangle. "Megalithic Sites in Britain by A Thom, Oxford University Press 1967."
Further to Thom’s work, excellent aerial photographs of Avebury are to be had these days, courtesy of Google Earth and Bing Maps. These photographs show the actual positions of Avebury’s megaliths and concrete plinths that replace the missing stones. However, Google’s image was slightly out of true in the vertical plane and required a minor correction.
So, the Google image was tweaked to concur with Thom's surveyed measurements between Stone16 and 68 and Stone1 and 50. This had the advantage of scaling Avebury's internal stone settings down, not up. Scaling up is the ridiculously inaccurate method most often used by archaeologists, who are dead against solving anything!
A small red or black circle represents the position of each stone. Black circles show those stones which have never been disturbed and are still in their original places. The centre of these circles was not filled in to make visible those stones that needed correcting to suit the now-corrected Google Earth.
CAD computer-aided design) found nothing seriously wrong with Thom’s survey, but corrections were made by moving some circles by the smallest amount to match actual stone positions. This highlights that a modern GPS survey should be done -- if not already. And since Avebury is an internal device, those measurements should be taken against the inside faces of the stones, not their centres, as Alexander Thom did.
All this is not to mention that a proper survey, plotted on CAD, should give a more accurate estimate of the value of the Stone Age standard unit of measurement, known as the Megalithic Yard.
11. Getting to grips with Avebury’s geometry.
Professor Thom must be congratulated for resolving the geometry of Avebury’s outer ring of megaliths while dealing with its axis of 42 degrees clockwise from the north, for this was no easy task.
So it's thanks to Thom that we can set Avebury's geometry to normal and make our job more straightforward!
Now, you might think that all this is down to the work of Professor Thom. It is not. It's essentially the same, but Thom failed to find or omitted the extra 30:40:50 triangle and the 250 MY radius cast from its corner F.
Thom did believe in a second triangle, though. Had he found it -- or deliberately overlooked it -- he'd have known that it led to lots more, as is demonstrated by the mass of Pythagorean triangles inscribed (for fun) on a gold plate, shown next.
12. Avebury’s early residents probably realised how many triangles, proportional to 3:4:5, could make the rectangle seen above. They probably produced it on a gold sheet measuring seven-and-a-half by ten megalithic inches like what the Stonehengers did when they made their nine-megalithic-inch-long lozenge of gold, which they placed across the chest of the Bush Barrow Man when they buried him.
The above geometry made Avebury the most popular place 5,000 years ago and drew visitors from miles around to help build the outer circuit of some ninety-nine stones. Pro Thom thought ninety-eight. Others say one hundred. But, hey, who is arguing?
13. The founding geometry of Avebury's outer ring.
Having marked out stages A and B, Avebury folk next cast a 750-radius arc from a post 550 Megalithic Yards from D of the small triangle. Well, that’s the theory! But the question is, how did early folk produce such a large arc using only wooden pegs and stretchy ropes?
We can see from Image C2 that a cord 244 megalithic yards long when stretched across a 750-radius circle, stands off the arc by ten megalithic yards. So scaling down ten times, or one hundred times, is not difficult to do.
Few coordinates are needed to produce a good 750 My arc. With very few pegs, the eye can quickly improve these ample curves.
The 750 MY radius was first produced on Windmill Hill, Avebury's oldest monument, 3,350 BC. See the report later.
14. Finally, we revolve our plan of Avebury 48 degrees anticlockwise to respect true north and aim its 750-radius antenna at the northernmost rising moon.
As with the other great henge's, Avebury has long been known to be a womb. However, producing a convincing argument in the face of archaeological corruption has always been the problem. So, what does prove it?
1. A Cove aligned midway between the summer solstice and the Major Standstill designed to bring the sun and moon together in the middle of a geometric, equinoctial aligned stone egg.
2. The exclusive moon-aligned dished curve of the female gender points too far north to be aligned with the sun.
3. The moon-aligned West Kennet Avenue umbilical connecting the henge to its child -- The Sanctuary.
4. The moon-aligned Beckhampton Avenue -- a fallopian connecting Avebury to a ring-ditch ovary, mathematically expressing growth, and the second cove in Longstone’s field.
5. An extant but suggestive perforated stone near the south exit to the female West Kennet Avenue with its boy burials.
As well as all this, we have Woodhenge, near Stonehenge, as a moon-aligned egg, which proves that early folks believed the moon to be female.
15. Moel ty Ucha: From "Megalithic sites in Britain" by A Thom. Llandrillo, Bala, Wales. This is another of Professor Thom's surveys after correction and resolution. This one is based on two pentagons.
16. Kerry Pole stone circle. From "Megalithic Sites in Britain" by A Thom. Near Newton Pow, Wales.
The reason for correcting Professor Alexander Thom's survey of Kerry Pole's stone ring is the professor produced geometry that passed through the centre of its stones when he should have worked to their inside faces. Thom made this commonplace, which means that every one of his 500 stone circle surveys needs correcting.
So far, I have corrected eight of the most important ones and will drop them into convenient slots as I've done with the one above.
I favour placing Kelly Pole here because it shows certain affinities with Avebury's outer ring. First, it respects Avebury's use of the 3:4:5 smallest of Pythagorean triangles but in linear form, with circle centre spacings of 3, 4, and 5.
Furthermore, it has what Professor Thom called "corners" when referring to his survey of Avebury's outer ring.
I might even go so far as to say that whoever designed Kerry Pole must have travelled over 200 miles from Newport to Wiltshire to help create much of Avebury.
HIRNANT EGG-SHAPED RING CAIRN, MID-WALES.
Based on an arrowhead, the geometry that Hirnant's stones stand on proved especially difficult to resolve, for all measurements are in Megalithic Inches.
17. A logic dictate. The Ordinance Survey looked for depressions and fiery pits over which Avebury’s stones were felled in preparation for their destruction. So, their survey did not show where the stones once stood. The OS plot is, therefore, only valuable for suggesting that the north and south circles are anything but circular. And while it might be years before archaeologists prove that the northern and southern circles are eggs, I see no reason for assuming those eggs and their founding geometry to have appeared, as shown above.
These eggs are variations on a theme. Both are based on the same-size simple three-times-size 3:4:5 triangle but are orientated in diverse ways. The Northern egg, shown pink, with an axis length of 248 MY, is three megalithic yards shorter than the southern egg at 251 MY, as expected from a female entity.