1. Hi. if you have come through from https://stonehengeology.com and read it in its entirety, you will know that the most important Stone Age number is the number three. And since triangles have three sides....
Welcome to Avebury Decoded. A 2021 survey, starting with Avebury’s Cove.
The Cove is seen above with a couple of stones that remain of Avebury’s Northern Circle, one at extreme left and the other at extreme right.
The Cove once consisted of three large stones, or megaliths, arranged in a ‘U’ shape, like an open-sided box. The slim Stone 1 with angular top is, as we shall see, male and phallic.
The massive Stone 2, in the middle of the picture, is often referred to as the 'Backstone,' but whether the Backstone was regarded as female by Avebury’s designers, is doubtful. Either way, this stone is thought to have been planted upright around five thousand years ago, and is probably the earliest and largest stone ever to arrive on the site.
Stone 3 was taken away in bits a long time ago. This stone had fallen, or was pulled down in 1713, and was smashed into pieces and whisked away for other purposes by Avebury’s villagers in 1720. So said Dr William Stukeley, who described Stone 3 as similar in size and appearance to Stone 1. Therefore, Stone 3 was male and phallic too.
Opinions have varied on the Cove’s astronomical alignment. Some have claimed that it opens out towards the summer solstice of the sun. Others have said that it aims at the Standstill of the Moon. Such confusing opinions prompted several visits to the Cove to try to make some sense of it.
2: My first survey, published in “Stonehenge Secrets 2007," was to show that its two remaining stones are set exactly 90-degrees apart. The above photograph shows my 90-degree triangle of string, which I placed against the inner faces of Stones 1 and 2 to prove it. What I was not able to do at the time, because of atrocious weather, was to get a photograph of the solstice that could clarify the Cove's alignment.
3. Having shown the covestones to be set exactly 90-degrees apart, white tapes were placed against the sides of Stone 1 that could only be parallel to the Cove’s axis. I also placed a couple of menus from the Red Lion pub, in-line with Stone 1, not that they turned out to be much help! But with tapes and menus placed and camera at the ready, me and the Druid waited patiently for the sun to rise.
I got the photograph I wanted, and it was placed on the front cover of a leaflet which I produced and presented to the six major libraries in 2010. “The Real Avebury” ISBN 978-0-95533012-6-1. This photograph proves that the Cove aims about five degrees further north than the solstice. And, since the Major Standstill of the Moon is about nine-degrees further north than the sun --The Cove is aimed midway between the two of them.
The Major Standstill is conveniently marked by the Druid to show where the moon will appear in late 2024 if given clear skies. Let’s hope someone captures a useful picture of it!
4. Well, now, what a surprise, because the exact point of solstice is not what Avebury folk were after!
This is what the sun looks like a few seconds after solstice. This and the next picture, proves that Avebury folk were not so much interested in the actual solstice as what happens a little while later.
This has serious implications for other monuments, too, especially for Stonehenge with its 50-degree axis, which is 1.5-degrees clockwise from the Neolithic and Bronze-Age solstice.
5: The inner face of Stone 2 -- 'The Backstone' -- seen shortly after sunrise.
I had the solstice photograph and was about to leave when the druid called me over. “You are missing the best bit,” he cried. “Come over here and look at this.”
“What am I looking for?” I enquired.
“Never mind that -- you just keep clicking away at that camera.
And so I did.
Early folks had not altered this stone in any way by flattening and polishing it, but it hardly matters, because five minutes after sunrise, when the sun escapes the atmosphere, this stone lights up with a beautiful rosy-red glow that should not be missed. Imagine what it would look like if cleaned free of lichen to expose a myriad of quartz crystals in its structure!
Without being prompted, the druid pointed to a burnt stone that lays several metres away that he believed once served as an altar. However, whether the Cove had an altar or not, it did not prevent the Backstone from acting as a mirror that joined the sun and moon in Astronomical Intercourse.
Several excavations around the bases of the Cove’s two remaining sarsens have been performed over the years, but the most important excavation was made by archaeologists in 2006, when, in a rescue attempt to prevent the stones from collapse, dug deeper than ever before and found ripe-husk-free barley seed placed near the bottom of the outer face of the Backstone.
Neolithic folks believed that seeds possessed the very essence of life, and by depositing barley seeds at the base of the Backstone, shows a wish for something would grow.
6. If ever a stone needed a good scrubbing, this one does!
Few things archaeological can be proved beyond doubt. The alignment of Avebury's Cove is one of the exceptions. It was for this reason that I made another visit on the 20th of September 2021, with a crude Tee-square and affixed compass, to reaffirm the alignment that I had found in 2009. It did. The compass showed the Backstone to have an azimuth of 48-degrees. (48 clockwise from north).
7: The Tee-square proved the inner face of the back stone to have a slight outwards bow and so this photograph was taken with the Tee-square placed in the middle of the stone to give an average result.
We should expect the moon, in late 2024, to rise out of the notch in the horizon seen between the tallest tree and one of the remaining stones of the Northern Circle. This bulbous stone is female gender, as no doubt was the Northern Circle and every stone in it.
Furthermore, whilst it is convenient to describe stone rings as circles, Avebury’s Northern Circle was not circular but egg-shaped. That egg points west towards the equinox and to where the setting sun and moon slide down the northern end of the beautiful Cherhill Hill.
8: Archaeological excavations at the Cove, 2003. This plan of the Cove by today’s archaeologists solves nothing. The stones are drawn too far apart for real life, the five-metre scale is hopelessly inaccurate, and the north arrow is 30-degrees out.
Here we have just one more archaeological Red Herring designed to put amateur researchers like me off, and it doesn't bode well for when we try to resolve Avebury's other cove to be found in Longstone's field near the village of Beckhampton.
The Longstone's Cove, or what is left of it, lies alongside the prehistoric Beckhampton Avenue of stone that once entered, not exited -- the Avebury Henge via its western causeway.
The Avebury Henge has long been known to be an internal device... 'I observed further, that as these stones generally have a rough and a smoother side, they took care to place the most sightly side of the stone inward, towards the included area.' Avebury, a temple to the British Druids. Stukeley W, 1727.
Professor Atkinson said the same thing about Stonehenge...'The main concern of the builders was to produce a presentable finish on those surfaces which would be seen from the interior of the site - the exception being the great trilithon.' Stonehenge, page 121. Atkinson R, 1956.
So, Avebury and Stonehenge were internal devices. Well -- that's another argument sorted!
9. I did say that triangles have three sides. And every one of these triangles are proportional to 3:4:5 -- the simplest Pythagorean triangle of them all.
Having established that the Cove in the middle of Avebury's Northern Circle - or egg, is rectangular, we next wanted to know the distance between Stone 1 and the extant Stone 3. And that is without resorting to an archaeological excavation to determine the position of the hole in which Stone 3 once stood. Fortunately, we only had to estimate this distance to the nearest megalithic yard. (32.664 imperial inches)
The Tee-square was sat on the grass and once more up-against the inner face of the Backstone. And with the help of a friendly day-tripper from Dudley, we positioned the Tee-square, by common consent, to be in the middle of the stone. A measurement was then taken from the inner face of Stone 1 to the Tee-square of sixteen feet six inches. This figure was then doubled to give a distance between Stones 1 and 3 of thirty-three feet which converts to twelve-megalithic yards.
Next, we estimated the distance from the inner face of the Backstone to the centre of Stone 1. This was four megalithic yards -- which when doubled gave eight in all.
From these rough measurements we found that the Cove is set on an eight by twelve megalithic-yard rectangle. .
Avebury's eight by twelve megalithic-yard Cove has....
* Sixty-four half-size Pythagorean triangles, shown blue, each one measuring 1.5 by 2.0 by 2.5 megalithic yards.
* Sixteen full-size triangles in green and measuring 3, 4 and 5 megalithic yards.
* Four twice-size triangles in red, each measuring six by eight by ten megalithic yards.
Numerically, four blue triangles are needed to make one green triangle, and eight green triangles are needed to make one red triangle. So, the clear aim, or message, was for the Cove to grow exponentially -- Just like the growth of a child.
Avebury’s Cove is akin to baking a cake. Apart from Numerics and three-sided triangles which are known to represent the family, other Ingredients are --- The power of the sun to fertilise, Barley and Wheat seeds which hold that life inside them, semen, infant burials (as found at the Longstone's Cove), and other unknown stuff, amongst which is an unproven wooden wheel or two -- unproven -- having rotted away long ago. But, with cannon bones having been found in some monuments, they did have horses!
Let's now consider the geometry of Avebury's outer circuit of stones..
10. Avebury's Cove is shown above as correctly placed in the middle of Avebury's Northern Circle. (William Stukeley's "Lunar Temple")
The Northern Circle is shown above as a true circle prescribed by being placed against four of its known stones, as also is the Southern Circle against its eight. However, we have plenty of information to show that these are not true circles, but ovals -- Specifically, eggs.
Nevertheless, it is better at this stage to leave the problem of these eggs behind for a while so that we can concentrate on Avebury’s outer circuit.
Much of the following is thanks to a survey made by Professor Alexander Thom. Thom's survey showed that the outer circuit was based on at least one 3:4:5 triangle. "Megalithic Sites in Britain by A Thom, Oxford University Press 1967."
Further to Thom’s work, excellent aerial photographs of Avebury are to be had these days, courtesy of Google Earth and Bing Maps. These photographs show the actual positions of Avebury’s megaliths and concrete plinths that replace those stones which are missing. However, Google’s image was found to be slightly out of true in the vertical plane and therefore required a small correction.
So the Google image was tweaked to concur with Thom's surveyed measurements between Stone16 and 68, and Stone1 and 50. This had the advantage of scaling Avebury's internal stone settings down, not up. Scaling up, is the ridiculously inaccurate method most often used by archaeologists, who are dead-against solving anything!
The position of each stone is represented by a small red or black circle. Black circles show those stones which have never been disturbed and are still in their original places. The centre of these circles was not filled in, so as to make visible those stones which needed correcting to suit the now-corrected Google Earth.
CAD found nothing seriously wrong with Thom’s survey, but corrections were made by moving some circles by the smallest of amounts to match actual stone positions. This highlights the fact that a modern GPS survey ought to be made -- if not already done so. And since Avebury is an internal device, those measurements should be taken against the inside faces of the stones, not their centres as Alexander Thom did.
And all this is not to mention that a proper survey, plotted on CAD, should give a more accurate estimate of the value of the Stone Age standard unit of measurement, known as the Megalithic Yard.
11. Getting to grips with Avebury’s geometry.
Professor Thom must be congratulated for resolving the geometry of Avebury’s outer ring of megaliths while dealing with the fact that the azimuth of its axis is 42-degrees clockwise from north. This was no easy task. Fortunately, and thanks to Thom for having established this axis for us, we can ease our efforts by rotating our plan 48-degrees clockwise to set the geometry normal, as can be seen above.
Now, you might think that this geometry is the sole work of Professor Thom. It is not. It is largely the same, but Thom failed to find, or omitted the 30:40:50 triangle and a 250-radius cast from its corner F.
Thom did believe in a second triangle, though, and had he found it -- or more likely deliberately omitted it -- he'd have known that it led to lots more, as is demonstrated by the mass of 3:4:5 triangles shown inscribed (for fun) on a gold plate, shown next.
12. Avebury’s early residents realised just how many triangles, proportional to 3:4:5, could make a rectangle as seen above and probably produced it on a sheet of gold that measured seven-and-a-half by ten megalithic inches. Just like what the Stonehenger’s did when they made their nine-megalithic-inch lozenge of gold, which they buried with their Bush Barrow Man.
This geometry made Avebury the most popular place to be 5,000 years ago, and visitors came from miles away to help build the outer circuit of some ninety-nine stones. Pro Thom thought ninety-eight. Others say one hundred. But, hey, who is arguing?
13: The founding geometry of Avebury's outer ring.
Having produced stages A and B, Avebury folk next cast a 750-radius arc from a post 550 megalithic yards from D of the small triangle. Well, that’s the theory! But the question is, how did early folk manage to produce such a large arc using only wooden pegs and stretchy ropes?
We can see from Image C2 that a cord 244 megalithic yards long, when stretched across a 750-radius circle, stands off the arc by ten megalithic yards. Scaling down ten times, or even one-hundred times, is therefore not difficult to do.
Few coordinates are needed to produce a good 750 MY arc. By running a rope round just three pegs, such curves are easy to improve by eye.
Patience is required for the next image to load because it is presented with greater clarity.
14: We now restore our plan of Avebury back to normal and true north, by revolving it 48-degrees anticlockwise, and, incidentally, to point its axis and antenna towards the northernmost rising moon.
As with the other great henge's, Avebury has long been known to be a womb, but producing a convincing argument, especially in the face of archaeological corruption, has always been the problem. So what does prove it?
1. A Cove aligned midway between the summer solstice and the Major Standstill that was designed to bring the sun and moon together in the middle of a geometric, equinoctial-aligned, stone egg.
2. The exclusive moon-aligned outer circuit of female gender, pointing too far north to be aligned on the sun.
3. The moon-aligned West Kennet Avenue umbilical which connects the henge to its child -- The Sanctuary.
4. The moon-aligned Beckhampton Avenue -- a fallopian which connects Avebury to a ring-ditch ovary, which again mathematically expresses growth, and a second cove in Longstone’s field.
5. An extant, but suggestive perforated stone, near the south exit to the female West Kennet Avenue.
As well as all this, we have Woodhenge near Stonehenge as a moon-aligned egg, which proves that early folks believed the moon to be female.
15: A logic dictate. The Ordinance Survey went looking for depressions and fiery pits over which Avebury’s stones were felled in preparation for their destruction. So their survey did not show where the stones once stood. The OS plot is therefore only valuable for suggesting that the north and south circles are anything but circular. And whilst it might be years before archaeologists get round to proving that the northern and southern circles are eggs, I see no reason for not assuming those eggs, and their founding geometry, to have appeared as seen above.
These eggs are variations on a theme. Both are based on the same-size simple three-times - size 3:4:5 triangle but are orientated in diverse ways. The Northern egg, shown pink, with axis length of 248 MY, is three megalithic yards shorter than the southern egg at 251 MY, as one might expect for a female entity.