18. Avebury’s geometry, Stage 8.
Finally, we rotate the whole thing 48-degrees anticlockwise to cause the 750-antenna-like-arc to aim - like Stonehenge - slightly south (clockwise) of the northernmost rising moon.
My desk-bound survey of Avebury 2019.
When producing a meaningful survey of Avebury, and without any kind of official help, there are still lots of information we can go on these days. First we have excellent satellite photography from on-line Bing, which was found sufficiently clear for pinpointing the positions of Avebury’s few remaining uprights. Bing photographs are taken from so high in the sky as to pretty much obviate chances of distortion.
Then we have Professor Alexander Thom’s co-ordinates, some of which can be found in his “Megalithic Sites in Britain” Thom A. Oxford University Press 1967. - Not all of Avebury's coordinated though are to be found in this book and we are made to look for the rest.
I have also plotted a comprehensive ground penetrating survey made by the Ordinance Survey, but I my request to publish it has been denied.
Greater accuracy was achieved by scanning an OS map and choosing two landmarks one kilometre apart - one kilometre equalling about 1,205.3 megalithic yards.
I was now able to work entirely in megalithic yards and avoid today's metres, which Avebury folk obviously did not use. One landmark was the barn set into Avebury’s western bank. The other was a farmhouse alongside the Herepath/Green Street a kilometre away. The Herepath or Green Street, is built over the track-way along which Avebury folk dragged the sarsen stones when collecting them from the Marlborough Downs.
With regard to the stone orthostats themselves... Let’s give William Stukeley a listen...
'I observed further, that as these stones generally have a rough and a smoother side, they took care to place the most sightly side of the stone inward, towards the included area.' Avebury, a temple to the British Druids. Stukeley W, 1727.
Professor Atkinson said the same thing about Stonehenge...
'The main concern of the builders was to produce a presentable finish on those surfaces which would be seen from the interior of the site - the exception being the great trilithon.' Stonehenge page 121 Atkinson R, 1956.
19. Originally three stones set in a perfect rectangle, Avebury's Cove stood in the middle of an egg-shaped ring of stones. Only two stones of that egg remain standing today and both can be seen in the above picture. One is on the extreme left; the other is at extreme right.
Avebury’s northern circle, or egg, which Stukeley called a lunar temple, is likely based on a pair of eight-times 3:4:5 Pythagorean triangles. The egg is aligned on the equinox and points at where the sloping northern end of Cherhill Hill comes down to ground.
The northernmost cove-stone fell in 1713 and was broken up and used for dwellings and walls etc. This left the two cove-stones you can see today. The 'Backstone' of the Cove (Stone II) in the middle of the picture has its best and flattest face aimed about 45-degrees east of north and therefore midway between the northernmost risings of the sun and moon. Its best face is on the opposite side to that seen above and is a must-see event on summer solstice morning when it is lit up in a blaze of light by the risen sun. Stone II was designed to either gather up the light coming from the sun and moon, or to reflect it. Perhaps it was meant to do both. Either way, placed in the middle of a stone egg, it was hoped the Cove would give life to it.
The Cove was investigated in 2003, when something was found at the base of the Backstone that supports the fertilisation hypothesis. But this excavation is so recent that I cannot tell you what it was that archaeologists found. However, for those of you who wish to know just what it was that archaeologists found at the base of the cove stones, seek out the 2003 report. Excavations at the Cove, Avebury, 2003. A preliminary report by Joshua Pollard.
I have a plan-view of Avebury's cove produced Smith and copied by Pollard in the above report. It is unfortunate that I do not have the space to show it here, because it is 30-degrees out. I have lost count of the number of archaeological plans that suggest archaeologists do not know where north is!
Covestone 1, what Burl calls a 'side slab' with its slender shape and angular top, is male gender. According to Stukeley, the other side-slab (Stone III) which fell in 1713 was a similar shape, so that was male too. Stukeley 1720.
20. Covestone 1 suggests Avebury's Cove to be male gender.
21. This picture was taken with the camera positioned parallel to Covestone 1 (and therefore 'normal' to Covestone II) and proves the Cove to be aligned midway between the sun and the moon.
I became interested in Avebury’s Cove after reading several conflicting reports on its astronomical alignment. Some writers claimed that its open side was trained on the northernmost rising of the sun (the summer solstice) others said it pointed towards the northernmost rising of the moon (The Major Standstill). This conflicting evidence prompted me to survey Avebury’s Cove for myself.
So, in June 2009 during the five days when the morning sun clears the horizon in the same place before accelerating southwards again, I finally got the photograph that I wanted.
White measuring tapes were laid parallel to the sides of the 'male' stone, and the camera placed in line with the right-hand tape, being normal to the reflective Backstone. And while it might not look like it, the tapes and menus are in fact, parallel. This photo proves once and for all that the most northerly point attainable by the sun, falls five or six degrees short of the Cove. However, the prehistoric moon, proven to be female in the book Woodhenge Embryology 2008, travels 10-degrees further north than the sun, and she will at the time of her 18.61 year-long standstill clear the horizon in a position shown above.
John Aubrey is credited as being the first person to discover and realise the archaeological worth of the Avebury henge, but it was a certain Dr. Charleton, author of books and physician to the king who made the first drawing of a rectangular setting of three large stones in Avebury’s northern sector that became known as the Cove. Of particular interest is that Dr. Charleton’s drawing shows a 30-degree triangular stone to be lying flat at its very centre.
Perhaps once used as an Altar for the placement of dedications, John Aubrey was requested to verify the presence of this stone and report back to the Royal Society: but although John made a drawing of the Cove that shows its three main uprights to be set in a perfect rectangle, he did not produce the evidence needed to support Dr Charleton’s claim; and here the records of the Royal Society become silent.
Coming some years later, William Stukeley was the first person to suggest that the two inner circles of Avebury's henge were meant to represent the sun and the moon, and that about half of Avebury’s many stones were meant to be male types and the other half female. He too did not report a central stone to be acting as an altar in the middle of the Cove; but while on one of several visits to make many drawings and writings for posterity, was forced to standby and lament the destruction of many of Avebury’s stones - including one of the cove’s three huge sarsen-stone orthostats.
My first survey of the cove, published in Stonehenge Secrets 2007 proved its two remaining uprights to be placed exactly 90-degrees apart, and were not precisely aligned on either the sun or the moon. However, what I wasn’t able to do at the time - because of atrociously bad weather - was to take a photograph of the solstice that could prove it.
22. I had the photograph that I wanted and was about to leave, when a druid, who had also been waiting for the sun to appear, called me over. “You are missing the best bit,” he cried, “come over here and look at this.” And so I did. “Watch this,” he said, and instructed me to look at the inner surface of the Backstone. “What am I looking for?” I asked. “Never mind that,” he said, “you just keep clicking away at that camera.” And so I did.
Early folk had clearly not yet learned how to make the incredibly hard sarsen stones largely flat and highly polished; but low altitude sunlight, falling on a myriad of light-reflecting particles in its structure does light up the Backstone with a beautiful rosy-red glow that should not be missed. This stone was a blaze of light when its surface was freshly cut, but I cannot go along with the druid’s theory that the striations on the stone were early man’s attempt at keeping records of sunspots.
He also said that it took hundreds of years for early folk to learn how to flatten and polish the extremely hard sarsens’ - a task which I think they finally accomplished at about the same time as they transported Avebury’s sarsen stones 20 miles south to build Stonehenge. By polishing flat the inner faces of the stones of Stonehenge’s sarsen circle to capture and amplify sunlight, Stonehenge was, apart from many other things, a veritable ‘Hall of mirrors' based on laser principles.
Without being prompted, the druid did point out a burnt stone that lies a few metres away from the Cove which he believed once acted as an altar. However, whether or not the cove originally had such a stone, it did not prevent the Backstone from acting as a mirror that joined the sun and moon together in Astronomical Intercourse!
No matter where we look, Neolithic and Bronze Age monument after Neolithic and Bronze Age monument, can be shown to bring the sun and moon together: Avebury's Cove, Stonehenge, Woodhenge, the Stonehenge Great Cursus, the Dorset and Godmanchester Cursus,’ and Durrington’s Southern Circle of timber - to name but a few.
I cannot resist adding the following, even though it has nothing whatsoever to do with the Stone Age...
She flew at my window. It was closed. Smack; she fell to the ground.
When she recovered, and as if asking for my help, against the window she once more came.
Were it not for the glass, I could have touched her.
Her once beautiful feathers, scraggy and torn; she had a badly infected eye.
She was dying.
I still see her mate as he searches the rooftops and hedgerows looking for her.
One lonely Magpie.
23. Stukeley's Lunar Temple, with its geometry and astronomical alignment concentrated on the northern end of Cherhill Hill.
24. We have to move over a bit these days if we want to see what Stukeley's Lunar Temple aims at. Namely the northern downward slope of Cherhill Hill.
To give you a rough idea of what it looked like in Stone Age times, the next picture will clear some stuff away, such as the barn, the trees and Avebury manor,
25. This is very nearly what a view from Avebury's Cove would have looked like in 2,500 BC.
Every one of the stones orthostats of the egg - Stukeley's Lunar Temple - are of course missing in this view, having been destroyed many years ago. So the row of grey-coloured stones are part of Avebury's outer circuit. Most of them, if not all, were dug up and restored to the vertical by Avebury's pre-war owner, Alexander Keiller.
26. Taken alongside the Backstone of the Cove, this is the best photo of the setting equinox sun that I've been able to get.
27. These two stones that form part of Avebury's outer circuit, are definitely not male gender. Not sure about the stone in the middle, other than that it forms part of Avebury's Southern Circle. The Z feature can also be seen in this picture.
28. Described as 'massive stones' in a recent BBC 2 serving, the 'Z' feature in the middle of Avebury's Southern Circle.
Concrete plinths replace some stones that Alexander Keiller found were missing. The furthest plinth to the right of the brick wall, marks the position of the 6 metre high, phallic Obelisk.
29. The Swindon Stone gets its name from being alongside the road leading to Swindon. The stone is female gender.
30. The West Kennet Avenue
This avenue of paired stones once connected Avebury Henge to the Sanctuary on Overton Hill, a mile and a half away. This section is pretty much all that is left of it, and we wouldn't have this were it not for Alexander Keiller, who spent his vast fortune restoring much of Avebury.
The stones you see here were buried out of sight when Keiller arrived, but with the help of his friend Professor Piggott, and a team of workers, the stones were excavated and set upright in concrete.
Interestingly, both Keiller and Piggott, believed that the stones of the Avenue were sexed. Bulbous stones they thought were female, and pillar-like stones considered male. According to that, the stone seen on the right of the picture is female and that on the left is male.
Enter the astronomer, Professor John North. Professor North visited Avebury looking for star alignments but found precious few of them. He found none at all along the West Kennet Avenue. What North did find was several alignments on the moon. Treating the Avenue as a series of four-stone-cells, North noticed that no matter which way he looked - be it across the cells or diagonally - or even from the opposite direction, he could find an alignment on the moon…
"It is possible that the arrangement was only an ideal, justified by the fact that the Moon was built into the avenue, as it were."
“Stonehenge: Neolithic Man and the Cosmos.” Professor John North 1996.
Male and female stones - astronomically-aligned - boy burials with beaker pottery and other dedications - often classed by archaeologists as domesticated refuse, i.e (Midden's.) The WKA was a unisex umbilical that connected Avebury to its Sanctuary. What else are we supposed to think?
31. This accuracy of the above survey can be put down to Google Earth.
Aligned on the 140 azimuth of the Wiltshire moon from several directions - respecting the cardinal points too. Boy burials alongside some stones. Beaker pottery. Neidermendig Lava from Germany. Male and female stones.
The West Kennet Avenue was an umbilical connecting Avebury to its Sanctuary.
I realised in 2007 that if I could prove the Neolithic moon to be female, I would have the real hypothesis for our Stone Age monuments. By doing so I could prove the West Kennet Avenue to be an umbilical cord.
The first proof came with the realisation that Woodhenge, near Stonehenge, was a moon-egg in...Stonehenge Secrets: the answer to Stonehenge 2007, ISBN 978-0-9553012-1-6. by yours truly (out of print.)
But the definitive proof came with the 2008 GPS survey of Woodhenge in...The Real Woodhenge - the key to Stonehenge - 2011, ISBN 978-0-9553012-8-5 (also out of print)
32. Just one example of many. The 140-degree azimuth made between stones West33 and East37, which point at where the Southernmost moonrise exits the notch of Lurkeley Hill.
Next southernmost standstill will occur in 2024.
33. A model of the Sanctuary: Can you see the little man?
Do you know how many times the diameter of a circle goes into its circumference? Avebury’s Sanctuary proves that the Beaker People had the answer to this question 4,500 years ago.
The rectangular blocks represent sarsen stones. The cylinders represent tree-trunks. Note how the internal posts are jockeying for position. Living accommodation? I do not think so.
A single skeleton originally thought to be that of an adolescent boy of about 14 years of age, and so at puberty, was found buried against the inside of a stone of the alternating stone and timber circle seen above. I have marked his grave with a red square.
The boy’s skull was of the long-headed type - what archaeologists call Dolichocephalic - proving him a member of the indigenous population. At his knees was found a complete but broken Beaker of possible German origin. The earliest known Beakers came from the Michaelsburg hill fort near Untergrombach, but the people who designed the first Beaker pots went missing and became lost to history when the river Rhine changed its course. Nevertheless, Wiltshire Beakers are good evidence of friendship between the two countries - though perhaps it was more like an uneasy peace!
Maud Cunnington and team excavated the Sanctuary in 1930 helped by her husband, Col. Cunnington who measured the diameters of its six circles. Col. Cunnington tellingly found the outermost circle to be 130 feet in diameter and the next one in at exactly half the size of 65 feet. The 65-foot circle was built from frail wooden posts that led Maud to wrongly believe its use as a wattle fence. She also wrongly believed that the two large posts, seen to be part of it, once carried a gate. These posts are aligned with the West Kennet Avenue of stones that ultimately link the Sanctuary to the Avebury henge almost 2.5 km’s away. But Maud was wrong with her diagnosis when she called it the ‘Fence Ring,’ because it was part of the monument’s geometry.
Proof of a Neolithic Wheel?
I adopted Alexander Thom’s Megalithic Yard some time ago, as we should when researching our prehistoric monuments. That’s if we are ever going to prove an early metrology to exist. I therefore converted Col Cunnington’s Sanctuary dimensions into Thom’s megalithic yards but was initially dismayed when I arrived at the seemingly odd figures of 47.76 diameter for the outer circle and 23.88 for the fence ring. I began to think I was getting nowhere. I wasn’t satisfied to let it go at this, so multiplied the odd figures I had found by Pi’s true value of 3.142.
Eureka: The circumferences of the circles came out at exactly 150My’s and 75My’s respectively and are exactly proportional, through the function Pi, to the diameters and radii of Avebury’s outer ring.
Clearly then; since Prehistoric people knew the exact value of Pi, they must have developed the wheel and Avebury had been measured out by it.
Maud’s team found a total of seven circles at the Sanctuary, but only the outer two are sufficiently accurate for us to bother with without further and careful excavation.
Twenty pieces of Niedermendig lava was found buried five feet (1.5 metres) deep around the base of one of the Sanctuary’s wooden posts. I have placed a toy man against the post where those fragments were found.
‘The use of this rock was known to the Beaker People in the Rhine area, where it was also used by their predecessors - the Neolithic people of the ‘Michel-berger’ culture.’
I am indebted to Herr George Kraft, of the Museum fur Urgeschichte, Freiburg. Maud Cunnington, 1929
Niedermendig lava was found inside the outer stone circle of Stonehenge and at a settlement site alongside the West Kennet Avenue. So were German tribes the brains behind our monuments?
Having found Niedermendig lava at these three vitally important locations should force the acceptance a single hypothesis for every timber and stone monument of the period.
34. Marked out with painted white concrete blocks to represent sarsen stones and painted red concrete cylinders to represent timber posts, this is what the Sanctuary looks like today.
35. This is my December 2018 survey of Avebury's Sanctuary while waiting for the winter solstice sunset.
36. My plan view of the Sanctuary.
This plan-view was made with the help from several sources. 1. Maud Cunnington's original 140 foot scale, which proved so accurate as to put today's archaeologists to shame. 2. My on-site measurements and, 3. Online Bing satellite photography.